When to Plant
Vegetables with a Monthly Calendar
vegetables in your gardens with our monthly vegetable planting calendar.
You will soon see that over one year,
you will have some indication of
what you should
be planting, when, and what chores need to be done throughout the year
on your farms, backyards and homesteads.
So many people fail at growing vegetables because they haven't taken
into basic considerations such as:
- type of soil and how to condition it for optimal growing
- pH conditions of soil and the pH requirements of what you
climate and hardiness zones
- the correct time to plant what
The following is a vegetable planting calendar for knowing what you can
plant when, if you live in the northern hemisphere.
When to Plant Vegetables - January
When to Plant Globe Artichokes
. During the month of
soil is still cold and therefore these plants aren't hardy at the
moment and so you should protect them with mulch, once planted out.
. Asparagus beds should be heavily
manured, if not already done, but the
beds don't need to be dug. Place your manure, and the rains
will wash this down into the roots feeding your plants. If you are
lucky enough to live near the coast seaweed is
the best of manure for Asparagus
that you can get.
Asparagus is a
perennial and once planted in your vegetable garden, you will be
harvesting for years.
When to Plant
Broad Beans. Broad beans
may be sown in frames, and towards the end of the month
in the open. For early crops select the long pod varieties. Sow on
ground that has been deeply dug and well manured.
to Plant Cabbages. Cabbages
may be planted out at any time when the weather permits, provided
you have the plants; but make sure that you get them from a reliable
source, or else varieties may be
planted which will in a few weeks send up flower-stems instead of
forming tender hearts.
to Plant Cauliflowers. Cauliflowers
should be sown on a gentle
hot-bed, or in a pan in the
greenhouse, or even in a frame, to make a start for planting out in
March or April.
Plant Cress. The
trick to planting cress is to have a constant succession of
small, but frequent sowings. All types of cress are good, but differ in
flavor, and they should be used only while young and tender. Sow at
intervals of a few days in pans, as in the case of mustard, until it is
possible to grow it out in the open, and then give them a shady
during summer on moist soil.
When to Plant
. Cucumbers are
never ready too soon to meet the demand in early spring.
They are grown in hot houses more or less adapted to their
also in frames over hot-beds.
When to Plant Horseradish.
It should be planted early, to ensure fine roots for next
Christmas beef, in December.
When to Plant
Those who wish to produce stems of superb size and beautiful
texture, leeks must be sown during this month or early in February, for a
longer period of growth is needed than for ordinary crops. When
sufficient root growth has developed, transplant into larger pots, and
in due course transfer these to a frame where the plants may be
gradually hardened off for putting out into specially prepared trenches
When to Plant Lettuces.
Lettuces are always in demand. Sow a few sorts in pans, in frames, or
hot-beds, to be ready for planting out later.
In large gardens,
three crops of Melons are usually grown in the
same hot-house in one season. A light soil is advisable at the
the year, but later in the season a heavier compost may be used.
the first sowing select an early variety, and at the beginning of this
month put the seed into separate pots. Re-pot the plants once, and they
will be ready for the beds by the first week of February. Melons from
this sowing should be fit for your tables in May, which is as
they can be produced with any sugar in them.
who like salads need a supply of mustard almost
all throughout the year, and to secure a succession it is necessary
to sow at regular intervals.
It is a good plan to keep
a few boxes in
use for the purpose in a greenhouse or cold frame, sowing one or two at
as required, and taking care not to sow too much. The seed may be
outdoors all summer, on a shady patch, but nothing it better than
boxes or large pans under glass. Mustard grows
beautifully under glass.
Mustard and Cress should
never be sown
in the same row or in the same pan, but separately, because they do not
grow at the same pace, and mustard may be ready to use a week or so
before the cress.
When to Plant
Onions.—The practice of
sowing onion seed in boxes under glass
is good for several reasons. It ensures a long season of
growth and results in good bulbs, far above the average size.
Transplanting allows one the opportunity of selecting the strongest
seedlings and placing them at exact intervals in the bed. As a
last advantage of this system it also seems to prevent attacks from
Fly. Sow in boxes
filled with rich soil and see that the
plants have enough water, although very little is necessary until
after transfer to other boxes.
Plant Peas. - Round peas can be sown in the open, against a
fence or trellis. If deep trenches are dug
and a lot of manure is put in for peas, the ground is also then
for broccoli, celery, and late cauliflowers to follow; for the
early-sown peas will be off the ground in time for another paying
Troughs for peas can be
made in very little time out of waste wood that
may be found in the yard; or a few lengths of old zinc spouting blocked
up at the ends. In the absence of such things,
flower-pots may be used. The seed should only be grown in hot houses at
this stage of the year.
can be planted now. Cover with light rich soil,
and use old frames for protection, with mulch handy in case
more or less in demand for the most part of the year. Grow in
a sheltered and warm position until it can be planted out in
position in the open.
Kale may be covered with pots or a good depth of mulch, or a
combination of pots and mulch. This should be done early, and
will generally be better than if forced. As the
leaf-stems must be thoroughly blanched, they will need to be covered.
When to Plant
Spinach. Spinach can be sown in the open. If the frost
destroys the plants,
sow again. Keep the autumn-sown spinach clear of weeds,
and when harvesting carefully pick the leaves so as to not damage the
When to Plant Strawberries.—Seed
varieties can be sown in pans this month. Later they can be transferred
into the open ground, and they usually produce fine fruits in
When to Plant
the tomatoes can be grown and ripened under glass. Cold frames can be
used when sown
either in pots or planted out.
The soil should be
prepared and left to rest in
the autumn. It should not be too rich, or there will be too many leaves
and not enough tomatoes, and the flowering will also be late. A
and loam with an
addition of sand suits tomatoes well;
but don't use raw manure. It has to be well-rotted.
Sow thinly in well-drained
pots firmly filled with soil, and place in a temperature of 60° or 65°
When large enough to handle, transfer the seedlings to small pots, and,
if necessary, shade them for a few days. Keep them near the glass until
the roots are well established.
When to Plant Vegetables - February
February is the time for
digging, liberal manuring, and cleaning up. Many weeds,
especially groundsel, will now be coming into flower, and if allowed to
seed will make enormous work for you later on. Remember, however, that
all kinds, so long as they
are not in flower, are really useful as a green manure when dug into
the soil, and can be used as a liquid
fertilizer if allowed to
rot in water.
Therefore a weedy patch is
not the end of the world, see it as a bonus; but if the
weeds are not stopped in time and they are allowed to flower, they
spread by their seeds and will cause you no end of weeding to
them in, and you will have a green manure for the next
crop. If you are going to sow your vegetable seeds early, make sure
that you have materials such as straw, spruce branches, mats etc. to
help protect your crop from the frost.
from a sowing made now in a frame, and
transferred into the open at the end of April, will generally produce
heads in the following August, September, and October.
Jerusalem. They may be planted this month where it has been
possible to prepare the ground. Use whole sets if convenient, or plant
cut sets with about three eyes in each.
When to Sew
Broad Beans. These
may be sown both for early and main crops now, and with
but little risk of damage by spring frosts. The driest and warmest
situation should be selected for the early sorts, and the best
for the late ones. If sowings were made in frames last month, take care
to harden the plants before planting out; if caught
by a sharp frost, you will probably lose the lot.
When to Plant
French Beans—Make a sowing of Dwarf
French Beans in cold frames, and of the Climbing French Bean varieties
in greenhouses or other available spaces under glass.
When to Sew
of the Globe beets can be made this month and in
March, on a gentle hot-bed under frames, to get them going early.
When to Plant
in a warm, sheltered area, and also in a frame.
When to Plant Brussels
should be made now in a warm area. This is a slow growing vegetable. If
you don't end up sowing sprouts early, you won't get the tight little
heads you are after.
When to Plant
Cabbage. Cabbage may
be sown in pans or boxes placed in cold frames which will later be
Plant Capsicum and Chili. Both
should be sown now or in March on a hot-bed, and be
potted out when the plants are fit to be placed in the greenhouse or
When to Plant
sowing should be made under glass to supply a
succession of plants.
Plant Corn Sala. This
thrives well in any soil not particularly heavy, the best
being a sandy fertile loam. Sow in drills six inches apart; keep the
weeds down, and when ready thin the plants out to six inches
apart. They should be eaten young.
When to Plant Eggplant/Aubergines.—
Eggplants are very important in French
Recipes, and they make a
delicious dish when properly cooked. Seed may be raised in heat, but
when summer comes the plants thrive in rich soil at the foot of a wall
facing south. The white and purple varieties are grown as ornament as
well as for cooking. Sow now or in March in heat, and in June the
should be ready for transferring to rich soil in a sheltered spot,
allowing each one a space of two feet.
When to Plant Garlic.
Garlic should be planted in rows, nine inches
apart each way, and two
inches deep in rich soil.
When to Plant
Lettuce.—Sow again on a warm border and
frames. Plant out in mild
weather any that are fit from frames and hot-beds, first making sure
that they are well hardened.
When to Plant
Mustard.—It is easy
work with a frame to
have Mustard at any time;
and many small sowings are better than large ones, which only result in
waste today and want tomorrow.
Plant Onions.—There is
still time for sowing seed
in boxes preparatory to
planting out in April.
When to Plant Parsley.
Parsley can be sown in the latter part of
When to Plant
should be sown as early as possible, on good soil, but not too rich,
because like carrots, they will fork.
When to Plant
early sorts in quantity now but don't sow them on soggy ground or
during bad weather as the seed will rot and come to nothing.
There is time yet for
sowing mid-season and late peas. Some people sow many rows of peas in
plot rather close together, but it is better to put them far
apart so that two or three rows of early potatoes can be grown between
two rows of peas. This ensures lots of light and air to the peas,
and the peas in turn protect the potatoes from May
frosts. An ideal situation of companion
warm, dry, fertile soil
is needed for first-early peas. As they grow fairly quickly, if you end
up sowing them too early and they are affected by the weather, it is
best to dig them in and start again. Where early rows are doing well
them much as you can from any chance of bad weather.
Remember peas, corn and
pumpkins grown together is an excellent example of permaculture,
and is commonly known as a 3
Plant Radishes. Radishes
to be mild,
tender, and not woody must be grown quickly. Mulching will
help protect the plants
from any frost.
be taken up and divided, and planted again in rich
moist soil, with each piece having at least one good eye. Never pick
rhubarb from newly planted plants, but rather wait a year before you
harvest from these plants. This allows the plants to be really
established, and will produce better for you in the future.
When to Plant
can be enjoyed when small, or large, and seem to taste better if they
have been affected by some frost. If you are after large
savoys make sure that you sow them quickly, either in a frame, or in a
well prepared seed bed, and transplant them before they become crowded.
Kale.— Open-ground Sea Kale can be
uncovered as soon as it is cut, but a little mulch should be given
protection and help the young shoots to rise again, because after
the cutting is a severe strain on the plant, and it has to begin life
again and prepare for the work of the next season.
When to Plant
well grown the clumps are bigger than a man's fist, and
each separate bulb thicker than a walnut. To grow them well they must
have time; so plant early, on rich ground, in rows one foot apart and
the bulbs about nine inches apart. Press them into the earth deep
enough to hold them firmly, but not quite buried.
When to Plant
the thickly. However, if you end up sowing too much seed the extra crop
can always be given to your chickens or dug into the ground as a green
When to Plant
Tomatoes.—If you plant tomato seeds this
month, and if all goes well, you should be able to get tomatoes on your
plants within 4 months of sowing. Use
good soil for the seed trays. Sow very thinly in a temperature of
60° or 65° F., and get the plants into smaller pots while they are
When to Plant
may be sown on warm borders, but it is too early to plant enmass out in
When to Plant Vegetables - March
March is the great season
for garden work seed beds should be carefully prepared and
your vegetable gardens cleaned up ready for the growing season. Where
crops have failed, dig them back into the soil and sow again. It
doesn't cost too much these days to buy a packet of seeds and there is
no point in trying to coax a patch of a certain vegetable that is
doomed for failure.
If you have plants in
frames at this stage, the temperatures can rise during the day, so it
is important that you open them a little on the warmer days to give
your plants ventilation.
If you are wondering when
to plant vegetables - vegetable seed
of almost every vegetable grown in the garden can be sown during the
month of March. Make successive sowings and it is probably at this
stage far better to raise them in hot houses, frames or greenhouses
before you think about putting them in outside beds as you never know
what the weather will do at this stage.
How to Make a Hot Bed
Very important indeed it
is now to secure a Hot-bed.—To
make one is easy enough. In the first place,
secure a great bulk of manure, and if it is long and green, turn it two
or three times, taking care that it is always moderately moist, but
never actually wet. If the stuff is too dry, sprinkle with water at
every turn, and let it steam away to take the rankest fire out of
Then make it up where
required in a square heap, allowing it to settle
in its own way without treading or beating. Put on a foot-depth of
light, rich soil after the frames are in their places, and wait a few
days to sow the seed in case of a great heat rising. When the
temperature is steady and comfortable, sow seeds in pots and trays, as
needed, the quantity required of each separate crop, and stand them on
bricks above the bed, so that the heat doesn't damage the plants.
In the course of a few days finish the work by putting in a body of
Do not attempt to hurry
the growth of anything too much, because if you do you will only get a
weak plant. Rather give air and plenty of light, and the
short and healthy from the beginning.
to be cleared of protecting material as soon as
weather permits, and made ready for suckers to be put
in next month. A new plantation may also be formed by sowing seeds; in
fact, a sowing ought to be made every year. Where early produce is
required, the plants should be protected during winter to supply
in the spring; but, if late supplies suffice, the sowing of a few rows
every year will reduce the labor, and the production of Globe
Artichokes becomes a very simple affair.
Plant Jerusalem Artichokes. Jerusalem artichokes may be
planted now. Strong,
soil produces the best crop, and large roots are always preferred by
cook, because of the inevitable waste in preparing this vegetable. The
Jerusalem Artichoke is certainly not properly appreciated, and one
reason is that it is often carelessly grown in any out-of-the-way
starving corner, whereas it needs a sunny, open spot, and a strong,
soil, and plenty of room. To hide an ugly fence during summer no more
useful plant is grown.
When to Plant
attention is required as yet, except to remove
every weed as soon as it can be seen. If the beds are dry, and there
no indications of coming rain, one good soaking of water or weak sewage
will be very beneficial. Mark out and make beds for sowing seed next
When to Plant
Broad Beans. Plant
out those raised in
frames, and earth up those
from early sowings that are forward enough. Sow for main crops and late
supplies. In late districts a few of the earliest sorts may be sown to
come in before the Windsor section.
When to Plant Beets.—Sow
a little seed for an early
supply, in well-dug mellow soil.
The crop will need protection in the event of frost.
When to Plant
Broccoli for autumn
use to be sown early;
and at the end of the month
sow again in quantity for winter supplies. In mild weather, put out the
plants from the earlier sowings made in frames as soon as they are fit
and well hardened.
When to Plant
after the bed sown
last month, and sow again
for the main crop. The best possible seed-bed is wanted and a rich
well-tilled soil for the plants when put out.
When to Plant
Cabbage of two or
three kinds should be
sown now to supply plants for
filling up as crops are taken off, and also to patch and mend where
failures happen. Where the owner of a garden has opportunities of
helping his poorer neighbors, he may confer a real benefit by
them with Cabbage and Winter Greens for planting in their garden plots.
Cottagers too often begin
with bad stocks—very much to their
discouragement in gardening, and to the loss of wholesome food the
garden should supply. The rankest manure may be employed in preparing
ground for Cabbage, reserving the well-rotted manure for seed-beds and
other purposes for which it will be required. A sowing of Red Cabbage
now will insure heads for pickling in autumn.
Plant Carrots.—Sow one of
the quick-When to Plant Vegetables -
varieties at the first
opportunity, but wait for signs of settled spring weather to sow the
main crops of large sorts.
When to Plant
out as weather permits from hand-lights and frames, choosing the best
ground for this vegetable. In preparing a
plot for Cauliflower, use plenty of manure; and if it is only
it will be better than if it were old and mellow.
When to Plant Celeriac.—So
far as seed sowing is
concerned, Celeriac may be treated
in the same way as Celery.
When to Plant
earliest supply, sow on the
first of the month a
pinch of seed of one or more of the smaller red or white sorts
mild hot-bed, or in a hot-house.
As soon as the plants are
enough to handle, prick them out three inches apart on a nice mellow
of rich soil on a half-spent hot-bed; give them plenty of light, with
free ventilation as weather allows, and constant supplies of
About the middle of the
month sow again and prick out as before; but if
no hot-bed is available, a well-prepared bed in a frame in a sunny
position will answer; or, if the season is somewhat advanced, a bed of
rotten manure, two or three inches deep, on a piece of hard ground,
suffice, if the plants are kept regularly watered. From this bed they
will lift with nice roots for planting out, scarcely feeling the
When to Plant Chives.
These are to be divided and re-planted on a
spot which has not previously
been occupied with the crop.
When to Plant
vines should now be in a flourishing condition, but it
is necessary to look forward to the day when they will have yellow
More seed sown singly in
pots will provide a
succession of plants. Re-pot them once or twice if desirable, and when
large enough turn them out between the first lot.
As the old plants
fail, the new-comers will supply their places. Setting the bloom, as it
is called, is not only useless, but is a mischievous procedure. It
results in the enlargement of one end of the fruit, and ruins its
If seed be the object, of
course the process is
but for the table a 'bottle nose' cannot be regarded as an ornament.
Besides, the ripening of seed in a single fruit will materially
the usefulness of the plant, and perhaps entirely end its
Stopping the vine
necessity, but it should not be done too soon. In
the early stage of growth, it reduces the vigor of the plant and
retards its fruiting; but when the fruit is visible, stopping aids its
development and at the same time tends to regulate and equalize the
Frame culture of
is usually begun in March. There are people who
can produce fruit from hot-beds all the year round, but it is a
difficult task, and as a rule ought not to be expected. At this time of
year, however, success is fairly within reach of ordinary skill.
the early part of the month put seed singly into pots which must
be kept in a warm, moist place. The plants will then be ready for
at the end of the month. The most important business is the preparation
of the bed, and in this, as in all else, there is a right and a wrong
way of doing the work.
space on which it is to
made.If there is plenty of
manure, make the bed large enough to project
eighteen inches beyond the lights all round. But if manure is scarce,
cut the margin closer, and trust to a hot lining when the heat begins
Start with the
the bed, employing the long stuff in
its construction; and keep this part of the work a little in advance of
the center until the full height is reached. A bed made in
not fall to pieces, and the heat will be durable in proportion to its
size and thickness. Where fallen leaves are abundant, they should be
used for the middle of the bed, and they will give a more lasting heat
than short manure.
When the bed has
down to a steady
temperature, add six or nine inches of mellow loam over the entire
surface, upon which place the frames. It is usual to have two
plants under each light,
but where the management is good, one is quite enough.
work consists of shading and sheltering, to prevent any serious check
from trying weather, and in giving just water enough and no more. The
fermenting material should sustain the temperature of the frame, even
during frosty nights, and mats will screen off strong sunshine as well
as cold winds.
The plants will
stopping earlier than those grown in
houses, and as there are no hot-pipes to dissipate the moisture, rather
less water will be necessary, both in the soil and from the syringe.
the water employed should always be of the same temperature as the bed.
This is easily managed by keeping a full can standing with the plants.
In large frames,
there is a good body of manure and the loam is
mellow and turfy, pieces of Mushroom spawn can be inserted all over the
bed. The Mushrooms may appear while the bed is in full bearing; but if
they do not they will come when the plants are cleared out, and pay
to keep the lights in use another month or so.
When to Plant Garlic
. Garlic may
still be planted, but no time is to be lost.
When to Plant Herbs
of many kinds may be sown or divided,
and it will be necessary
to look over the Herb quarter and see how things stand for the supplies
that will be required. A little later, excess of work may prevent due
attention to this department.
When to Plant
This needs to be planted, if not done
When to Plant
Rabi, or Knol Kohl,
to be sown in small quantity at the end of
the month, and onwards to August, as required. If cooked while young,
the bulbs are an excellent substitute for Turnips in a hot, dry season.
When to Plant
the main crop in very rich,
well-prepared soil, and rather
thickly, as the seedlings will have to be planted out. With a little
management this sowing will yield a succession of Leeks.
out and sow again in quantity. All the kinds may be
sown now, but make sure of enough of the Cos and smaller Cabbage
varieties. In hot, dry soils, where Lettuces usually run to seed early,
try some of the red-leaved kinds, for though less delicate than the
green and white, they will be useful in the event of a scorching
Lettuces require a deep free soil with plenty of manure.
a few seeds singly in pots, in readiness for putting
under frames on hot-beds next month. Re-pot the plants, and repeat the
process if the beds are not ready, for Melons must not be starved,
especially in the early stage of growth. Some growers make up the beds
in March, and sow upon them when the heat becomes steady, but the
practice is somewhat precarious. In a cold, late spring the heat may
last a sufficient time to carry the plants safely into warm weather.
Hence it is more reliable to raise them now in a warm house, and make
the bed at the beginning of April.
plants already raised in boxes to be removed to cold
frames. If necessary, they should be pricked off into other boxes in
order to avoid overcrowding. Keep the frames close at first, but give
air with increasing freedom as the time approaches for transfer to the
open ground. Sow the main crop in drills nine inches apart, and tread
beat the ground firm. This crop requires a rich soil in a thoroughly
clean and mellow condition, and it makes a capital finish to the
seed-bed to give it a good coat of charred rubbish or smother ash
sowing the seed.
main crop in shallow drills eighteen inches apart in
good soil deeply dug. The seed should be lightly covered, and new seed
the finest sorts of peas. Take care to put
them on the best seed-bed that can be made, and allow sufficient room
between the taller sorts for a few rows of Cabbage, Broccoli, or
Potatoes. A crowded quarter of Peas is never satisfactory; the rows
smother each other, and the shaded parts of the haulm produce next to
small quantity for early use should be planted at the
opening of the month when the ground is dry and the weather soft. If
planted when frost or cold winds prevail, sets may become somewhat
shriveled before they are covered, and every care should be taken to
prevent such a check to the initial vigor of the plant. The
first-early sorts will necessarily have the chief attention now, and
warm sheltered spots should be selected for them.
Any fairly good
will produce a passable crop of Potatoes; but to secure a first-class
sample of any early sort, the ground should be made up with the aid of
turfy soil and charrings of hedge clippings and other light, warm,
are not to
be desired, but a mellow,
kindly, fertile soil is really necessary, and it will always pay well
take extra pains in its preparation, because all the light rubbish that
accumulates in yards and outhouses can be turned to account with only a
moderate amount of labor, and the result of careful appropriation of
such rubbish will be thoroughly satisfactory.
Burn all the
sticks and other stubborn stuff, and lay the mixture in the trenches
when planting, so that the roots may find it at their first start. As
the Potato disease does not usually appear until late in summer, early
planting is a safe precaution, for it insures early ripening of the
crop. The planting of main crops may commence towards the end of March
and be completed during April, according to the locality and the
condition of the soil.
March to September make successive sowings in the
coolest place that can be found for them.
Plant Scorzonera. It
should be treated much the same as Salsify. See note on the
latter under April.
Plant Sea Kale. It should
be sown in well-prepared beds; or plantations may be made
of the smaller roots of the thickness of a lead pencil, and about four
inches in length. Plant them top end uppermost, and deep enough to be
in plenty. The Perpetual or Spinach Beet should not be
forgotten. This is one of the most useful vegetables known, as it
endures heat and cold with impunity, and when common Spinach is running
to seed the Perpetual variety remains green and succulent, and fit to
supply the table all the summer long.
Zealand Spinach. is another excellent
vegetable in high summer
when the Round-seeded variety is worthless. The plant is rather tender,
and for an early supply the seed must be sown in moderate heat, either
in this month or in April. When large enough, get the seedlings into
small pots, and gradually harden them before planting in the open about
the end of May.
is undoubtedly preferable to autumn for
planting, and results in a finer crop of fruit in the following year.
Just as growth is commencing is the most favorable time, and this, of
course, depends on the character of the season. Alpine Strawberries may
be sown outdoors this month or in September for fruiting in the
ordinary seasons and in the southern counties there is no
difficulty in producing handsome tomatoes in the open border; but to
ripen the fruit with certainty it is imperative that an early variety
chosen. With the rise of latitude, however, the crop becomes
increasingly precarious, until in the North it is impossible to finish
tomatoes without the aid of glass. For plants which are to ripen fruit
in the open, a sowing should be made early in the month, in the manner
advised under January.
Plants which are
should be transferred to
small thumb pots. Put them in so that the first leaves touch the rim of
the pot, and place them in a close frame or warm part of the greenhouse
for a few days until the roots take hold. To save them from becoming
leggy, give each plant ample space, and avoid a forcing temperature. A
shelf in a greenhouse is a good position, and plants in a single row
upon it will grow stout and short-jointed.
Thrips and aphids
extremely partial to tomatoes. Frequent sprinklings in bright weather
will help to keep down the former, and will at the same time benefit
plants. Both pests can be destroyed by fumigating with tobacco, and
the remedy is to be applied water should be withheld on that day. A
moderate amount of smoke in the evening and another application in the
morning will be more destructive to the vermin, and less injurious to
the plants, than one strong dose. The usual syringing must
Plants for the
must not be starved while in pots; they will
need potting on until the 4-1/2-inch or 6-inch size is reached, and it
is important that they should never be dry at the roots. Shading will
only be necessary during fierce sunshine; in early morning and late in
the afternoon they will be better without it.
is quite a mistake to suppose that a running stream
is requisite - this plant, and it is
equally a mistake to
suppose that the proper flavor can be secured without the constant use
of water. Sow in a trench, water regularly and copiously, and mild and
tender Water Cress will reward the labor.
Plant Winter Greens
of all kinds to be sown in plenty and in considerable
variety; for in the event of a severe winter some kinds will prove
hardier than others.
When to Plant Vegetables - April
Vegetation is now in full
activity, the temperatures are increasing rapidly,
frosts are less frequent, and showers and sunshine alternate. The
gardener must promote the growth of his crops by all the
means possible; by plying the hoe to keep down weeds and open the soil
sunshine and showers; by thinning and regulating his plantations, that
air and light may have free access to the plants left to gain
maturity; by continuing to shelter as may be needed; and by
administering water during dry weather, that vegetation may benefit
from increasing sunlight.
When to Plant
to be put in the
plantations prepared for
them last month, in rows three to four feet apart each way.
Rake off into the alleys the remnant of manure from the
autumn dressing, and as soon as the weather is favorable give the beds
a light application of salt. If new beds are required, there must be no
time lost either to sow seed or get in plants.
Our advice to
require only one small plantation is to form it by planting strong
roots; but those who intend to grow Asparagus largely may sow down a
every year, until they have enough, and then leave well alone; for a
properly made will last ten years at the very least, if taken care of.
It has been clearly demonstrated that this much-esteemed vegetable may
be grown to perfection in any garden with little more expense than
attends other crops, provided only that a reasonable amount of skill is
brought to bear upon the undertaking.
A deep, rich,
Dig in a good body of manure, and provide a mellow seed-bed. This being
done, care must be taken to sow thinly, and, in due time, to thin
severely; for a crowded plant will never supply fat sticks. Beds may be
made by planting roots instead of sowing seeds, but the roots must be
fresh, or they will not prosper. The advantage of using plants is that
'grass' may be cut earlier than when produced from seed.
Plant Beans, Broad.—-
Sowings may be made until the middle of this month,
after which time they are not likely to pay, especially on hot soils.
is customary to top Beans when in flower, and the practice has its
advantages. In case the black fly takes possession, topping is
necessity, for the insect can only subsist on the youngest leaves at
top of the plant, and the process pretty well clears them away.
French Beans . These may be sown outdoors at the end of
the month, but not in quantity, because of the risk of destruction by
frost. Much may
be done, however, to expedite the supply of this popular vegetable, and
sowings in boxes placed in gentle heat or under the protection of a
frame will furnish plants which may be gradually hardened off for
transfer to the open in May. In proportion to the means at command,
early sowings outdoors will live or die, as determined by the weather,
although a very little protection is sufficient to carry the young
plants through a bad time in the event of late frosts and storms. But
sowings made at the end of the month will probably prosper.
Plant Climbing French Beans.—Sowings
of the Climbing French Bean may be
made this month as directed for the Dwarf French class: the earliest in
gentle heat for transplanting, and later on in open quarters for
quite the end of the month sow in drills, a foot or fifteen
inches apart, on deep, well-dug ground, without manure. Large Beets are
not desired for the kitchen; but rather small, deeply colored,
handsome roots are always valued, and these can only be grown in soil
been stirred to a good depth, and is quite free of recent manuring.
another sowing of several sorts, giving preference as
yet to the early varieties. In particularly late districts, and,
perhaps, pretty generally in the North, the late Broccoli should be
sown now, but in the Midlands and the South there is time to spare for
sowing. Be particular to have a good seed-bed, that the plants may grow
well from the first; if the early growth be starved, the plants become
the victims of club and other ruinous maladies.
Plant Brussels Sprouts.—In
many households late supplies of Brussels
Sprouts are much valued, and as the crop is capable of enduring severe
weather, a supplemental sowing should always be made during this month.
Rich soil and plenty of room are essential.
the larger kinds for autumn use, and one or two rows of
the smaller kinds for planting in odd places as early crops are cleared
off. Cows, pigs, and poultry will always dispose of surplus Cabbage
advantageously, so there can be no serious objection to keeping up a
constant succession. Plant out from seed-beds as fast as the
become strong enough, for stifling and starving tend to club, mildew,
and blindness. Where Red Cabbage is in demand for use with game in
autumn, seed should be sown now.
They should be sown on land heavily manured in rows three
or four feet
apart, the seeds in clumps of three each, eighteen inches apart. They
are sometimes sown in trenches, but we do not approve of that system,
for they do not require moisture to the extent of Celery, and the
blanching can be effectually accomplished without it. Our advice is to
plant on the level, unless the ground is particularly dry and hot, and
then trenches will be of great service in promoting free growth. To
insure their proper flavor, Cardoons must be large and fat.
When to Plant
the main crops and put them on
deeply dug ground without
should be planted out at every opportunity, warm, showery
weather being most favorable. If cold weather should follow, a large
proportion of the plants will be destroyed unless protected, and there
is no cheaper protection than empty flower-pots, which may be left on
all day, as well as all night, in extreme cases when a killing east
blowing. Sow now for late summer and autumn use, prick the plants out
early to save buttoning, and they will make a quick return.
in a warm corner of the open ground on a bed consisting
largely of rotten manure. It may happen in a good season that this
outdoor sowing will prove the most successful, as it will have no check
from first to last, and will be in just the right state for planting
when the ground is ready for it after Peas and other early crops. If
Celery suffers a serious check at any time, it is apt to make hollow
stems, and then the quality is poor, no matter to what size the sticks
may attain. Prick out the plants from seed trays on to a bed of rotten
manure, resting on a hard bottom, in frames or in sheltered nooks, and
look after them with extra care for a week or two. Good Celery cannot
grown by the haphazard gardener.
a small quantity in moderate heat for the first supply,
in drills six inches apart, and when an inch high prick out on to a bed
of rich light soil.
Fennel, Hyssop, and other flavoring and medicinal
Herbs, may be sown now better than at any other time, as they will
at once into full growth, and need little after-care other than
and weeding. Rich soil is not required, but the position must be dry
Plant Leeks. Leeks can
be sown again if the former sowing is insufficient or has
Plant Lettuce. Lettuce can be sown for succession, the
tender-hearted kinds being the best to sow now. Plant out from frames
and seed trays. A
few forward plants may be tied, but as a rule tying is less desirable
than most people suppose. Certainly, after tying, the hearts soon rot
if not quickly eaten; and Lettuces as fine as can be desired may now be
grown without tying, the close-hearting sorts being very much improved
in that respect.
again for a second crop in houses, and grow the plants in
pots until they reach a foot high. The early crop will then be ripe,
and the house can be cleared and syringed for a fresh start. From this
sowing fruit should be ready about the beginning of July.
culture advised for Cucumbers will be right for Melons, until the
fruits attain the size of a small orange. Then a thorough soaking must
given, and under proper management no more water should be necessary. A
dry atmosphere and free ventilation are essential to bring the fruit to
Stopping must be
early by pinching out the leader,
and only one eye should be allowed beyond the fruit which are to
Six will be enough for one plant to carry, and they should be nearly of
a size, for if one obtains a strong lead, it will be impossible to
the others. The remainder should be gradually removed while
worst foe of the Melon is red spider, and it is difficult to apply a
remedy without doing mischief. Water will destroy it, but this may have
disastrous results on the fruit. The most certain preventive is stout
well-grown plants. Weakly specimens appear to invite attack, and are
incapable of struggling against it. Where plants are occasionally lost
through decay at the collar, small pieces of charcoal laid in a circle
round the stem have proved a simple and effectual antidote.
plants raised under glass in January or February should be
ready for planting out on some favorable day about mid-April. If any
mishap has befallen the sowings made in the open in March there must be
no delay in resowing early in the present month, for Onions should have
good hold of the ground before hot weather comes. Onions for pickling
should be grown thickly on poor ground made firm. The plants are not to
be thinned, but may be allowed to stand as thick as pebbles on the
seashore. The starving system produces abundance of small handsome
bulbs that ripen early, which are the very things wanted for pickling.
Queen and Paris Silver-skin are adapted for the purpose.
When to Plant
It is to be sown in quantity for summer
and autumn supply; thin as
soon as up, to give each plant plenty of room.
When to Plant
They are to be sown again for succession.
When to Plant
the earliest opportunity of
completing the planting of
delicious root, which is sometimes designated the
'Vegetable Oyster,' requires a piece of ground deeply trenched, with a
thick layer of manure at the bottom of the trench, and not a particle
manure in the body of soil above it. The roots strike down into the
manure, and attain a good size combined with fine quality. If
grown, they become forked and fibrous, and are much wasted in the
cooking, besides being of inferior flavor. Sow in rows fifteen inches
apart, any time from the end of March to the beginning of May. Two
sowings will generally suffice.
the Long-standing variety, which does not run so soon as
the ordinary kind. If a plantation of Spinach Beet has not been
sow at once, as there is ample time yet for a free growth and a
When to Plant
They are to be sown in quantity.
early sowing to be made in pots, in readiness
for planting out immediately weather admits of it. Three plants in a
are enough, and they must not be weakened by excessive heat.
sowing of Borecole should be made, and if a supply
is required in spring, it will be well to sow again in the first week
When to Plant Vegetables - May
continue in your vegetable garden, for the heat increases daily, and
season of production is already shortened by two months. The most
pressing business in growing your vegetables is to fix all losses, for
even now, if things
gone wrong, it is possible to get up a stock of Winter Greens, and to
sow all the sorts of seeds that should have been sown in March and
April, with a reasonable chance of profitable results.
It must not be
expected, however, that the most brisk and skillful can overtake those
who have been doing well from the first dawn of spring, and who have
omitted to sow a single seed at the proper time from the day when
seed-sowing became requisite.
The heat of the
now sufficient to
start many seeds into growth that are customarily sown in heat
or two earlier; and, therefore, those who cannot make hot-beds may grow
many choice things if they will be content to have them a week or two
later than their more fortunate neighbors.
In sowing seeds
tender subjects, such as Capsicums, Marrows, and Cucumbers, it will be
better to lose a few days, in order to make sure of the result desired,
rather than to be in undue haste and have the seed destroyed by heavy
rains, or the young plants nipped off by frost. Do not, therefore, sow
any of these seeds in the open ground until the weather is somewhat
settled and sunny, for if they meet with any serious check they will
scarcely recover during the whole of the season.
Plant Asparagus - Plant asparagus
in seed-beds to be thinned as soon as possible, so that
wherever two or three plants rise together, the number should be
to one. But there is time yet for seedlings to appear. The bearing beds
are more attractive, for they show their toothsome tops. The cutting
must be done in a systematic manner, and if practicable always by the
It is better to
the shoots as fast as they attain a
proper size, and sort them for use according to quality, rather than to
pick and choose the fat shoots and throw the whole plantation into
disorder. Green-topped Asparagus is in favor in this country; but
who prefer it blanched have simply to earth it up sufficiently, and cut
below the surface, taking care to avoid injuring the young shoots which
have not pushed through. It is not for us to decide on any matter of
individual taste, but we will give a word of practical advice that may
be of value to many.
It is not the
protect Asparagus in open
beds, but it should be; for the keen frosts that often occur when the
sticks are rising destroy a large number. This may be prevented by
covering with any kind of light, dry litter, which will not in the
interfere with that full greening of the tops which some people
generally prefer, because the light and air will reach the plant; but
the edge of the frost will be blunted by the litter. If there is
at hand for this purpose, let someone go round with the sickle and cut
lot of long grass from the rough parts of the shrubbery, and put a
handful over every crown in the bed. The sticks will rise with the
litter upon them like nightcaps, and will be plump and green and unhurt
Plant Dwarf French Beans.—The
main crops should be got in this month, and
successive sowings may be made until the early part of July. Dwarf
Beans are but seldom allowed as much space as they require, and the
therefore should be thinned early, for crowded plants never
well as those that enjoy light and air on all sides. In Continental
cookery a good dish is made of the Beans shelled out when about half
ripe. These being served in rich gravy, are at once savory and
wholesome. Almost all the varieties of the Dwarf and Climbing sections
may be used in this way, and the Beans should be gathered when full
grown, but not yet ripe. The self-colored varieties are also grown for
use as dry Haricots, in which case the pods should not be removed until
this month for the main crop, and onwards
until June according to requirements. In a general way the treatment
usual for Runners will answer well for outdoor crops of the Climbing
When to Plant
the open ground sowings
may be made as soon as
conditions appear safe, but it is well to sow again at the end of the
month or in June.
main crop should be sown in the early part of the month.
Thin and weed the early sown, and if the ground has been suitably
prepared, it will be needless to give water to this crop. As Beet is
wanted large, it is not advisable to sow any great breadth until the
beginning of May, or it is liable to become coarse.
Plant Broccoli - Broccoli can be sown for succession.
Plant out from frames and forward
seed-beds at every opportunity. About the middle of the month sow for
cutting in May and June of next year.
the sake of a few fine buttons in the first
dripping days of autumn, when Peas and Runners and Marrows are gone,
out as soon as possible some of the most forward plants, giving them a
rich soil and sunny position.
out from seed-beds at every opportunity, choosing, if
possible, the advent of showery weather. Sow the smaller sorts and
Coleworts, especially in favored districts where there is usually no
check to vegetation until the turn of the year.
When to Plant
Capsicum. They can be
sown out of doors about the
middle of the month, and
nice green pods for pickling may be secured in the autumn.
the main crops early, and sow a few rows of Champion
Horn or Intermediate, for use in a small state during late summer, when
they make an elegant and delicate dish.
Plant Cauliflowers. They
must have water in dry weather; they are the most hungry
and thirsty plants in the garden, but pay well for
good living. Plant
out from frames as fast as ready, for they do no good to stand crowded
Plant Celery. Trenches
must be prepared in time, though, strange to say, this
task is generally deferred until the plants have really become weak
through overcrowding. In a small garden it is never advisable to have
Celery very forward, for the simple reason that trenches cannot be made
for it until Peas come off and other early crops are over. To insure
fine Celery the cultivator must be in advance of events rather than lag
Plenty of manure
used; it is scarcely possible, in
fact, to employ too much, and liberality is not waste, because the
ground will be in capital condition for the next crop.
There are many
planting Celery, but the simplest is to make the trenches four
feet apart and a foot and a half wide, and put the plants six to nine
inches apart, according to the sorts. This work must be done neatly,
with an artistic finish. In planting take off suckers, and if any of
leaves are blistered, pinch the blisters, and finish by dusting the
plantation with soot. As Celery loves moisture, give water freely in
of excellent quality may be grown on ridges or hills, should
the season be favorable. Suppose the cultivator to have the means of
obtaining plenty of manure, ridges, which are to run east and west, are
preferable to hills. The soil should be thrown out three feet wide and
two feet deep, and be laid up on the north side. Then put three feet of
hot manure in the trench, and cover with the soil that was taken out,
as to form an easy slope to the south, and with a steep slope on the
north side carefully finished to prevent its crumbling down before the
The plants should be put
out on the slope as soon as
possible after the ridges are made ready, under the protection of
hand-lights, until there is free growth and the weather has become
summery. It is a good plan to grow one or two rows of Runner Beans a
short distance from the ridge on the north side to give shelter, and in
case of bad weather after the plants are in bearing, pea-sticks or dry
litter laid about them lightly will help them through a critical time,
but stable manure must not be used. In case manure is not abundant,
a few small hills in a sheltered, sunny spot, with whatever material is
available in the way of turf, rotten manure, or leaf-mold, taking care
that nothing injurious to vegetation is mixed with it.
inches of a mixture of good loam and rotten manure on the hills, and
plant and protect as in the case of ridges. If plants are not at hand,
sow seeds; there will still be a chance of Cucumbers during July,
August, and September; for if they thrive at all, they are pretty brisk
in their movements.
Three observations remain
to be made on this
In the first place, what
are known as 'Ridge' Cucumbers only
should be grown in the open air; the large sorts grown in houses are
In the second place, the
plants should only be pinched once, and
there is no occasion for the niggling business which gardeners call
'setting the bloom.' Provide for their roots a good bed, and then let
them grow as they please.
In the third place, as
encouragement, we feel
bound to say that, as Cucumbers are grown to be eaten as well as to be
looked at, those from ridges are less handsome than house Cucumbers,
are quite equal to them in flavor.
Plant Dandelion. These
somewhat resemble the Endive,
and is one of the earliest
and most wholesome additions to the salad-bowl. Sow now and again in
June, in drills one foot asunder, and thin out the plants to one foot
apart in the rows. These will be ready for use in the following winter
When to Plant
Gourd and Pumpkins.—An
early show of fruit necessitates raising seeds
under glass for planting on prepared beds, and the plants must be
protected by means of lights or any other arrangement that can be
improvised as a defense against late frosts. Of course the seeds can be
sown upon the actual bed, but it is a loss of time. The rapidity with
which the plants grow is a sufficient indication that generous feeding
and copious supplies of water in dry weather are imperative.
for succession where the plants are to remain, and plant
out the earlier sowings at every opportunity. To insure a quick growth,
and prevent the plants from running to seed, extra care in giving water
and shade will be necessary after transplanting. The larger Cabbage
Lettuces will prove useful if sown now.
When to Plant Maize
and Sugar Corn. Sow early in the month on rich
light soil, and in a hot season,
especially when accompanied by moisture, there will be rapid growth.
cobs to be gathered for cooking when of full size, but while quite
When to Plant Melons.—It
is not too late to grow Melons in
frames, provided a start
can be made with strong plants.
When to Plant Peas.—Sow
Peas again if there is any prospect of a break in the
supply. It is a good plan to prepare trenches as for Celery, but less
deep, and sow Peas in them, as the trenches can be quickly
water in case of dry weather, and the vigorous growth will be proof
sown now will produce small useful hearts for winter use. By
many these small hearts will be preferred to large ones, as more
delicate, and therefore a sowing of Tom Thumb may be advised.
When to Plant New
can be sown in the
open ground in the early part
of this month and should be thinned to about a yard apart. The growth
somewhat resembles that of the Ice Plant. The tender young tops are
pinched off for cooking, and they make an elegant Spinach, which is
from bitterness, and is therefore acceptable to many persons who object
to the sooty flavor of ordinary Spinach.
When to Plant
the third week in May the plants for the open border
should be hardened. In a cold pit or frame they may be gradually
until the lights can be left off altogether, even at night.
layer of ashes at the bottom of the frame will insure drainage and keep
off vermin. If the plants are allowed plenty of space, and are well
managed, they will possess dark, healthy foliage, needing no support
from sticks until they are in final quarters.
Do not put them out before
the end of the month or the beginning of June, and choose a quiet day
for the work. If possible, give them a sunny spot under the shelter of
wall having a southern or western aspect. On a stiff soil it is
advisable to plant on ridges, and not too deeply; for deep planting
encourages strong growth, and strong growth defers the production of
Tomatoes are sometimes
grown in beds, and then it is necessary to
give them abundant room. For branched plants three feet between the
plants in the rows, and the rows four feet apart, will afford space for
tying and watering. Each plant should have the support of a stout stake
firmly fixed in the soil, and rising four feet above it; and once a
at least the tying should be attended to.
As to stopping, the center
stem should be allowed to grow until the early flowers have set. It is
from these early flowers that outdoor Tomatoes can be successfully
ripened, and the removal of the main shoot delays their production. But
after fifteen or twenty fruits are visible the top of the leading stem
may be shortened to the length of the stake. The fruiting branches
should also be kept short beyond the fruit, and large leaves must be
shortened to allow free access of sunshine. Should the single-stem
system be adopted, three feet between the rows and two feet between
plants in the rows will suffice.
On a light soil and in dry
weak liquid manure may, with advantage, be alternated with pure water,
but this practice must not be carried far enough to make the plants
gross, or ripening will be delayed. Fruit intended for exhibition must
be selected with judgment, and with this end in view four to six
specimens of any large variety will be sufficient for one plant to
When to Plant Turnips
for succession. It is
well now to keep to the small
white early sorts.
When to Plant
cottage gardens luxuriant vines may every year
be seen trailing over the sides of heaps of decayed turf or manure. All
forward vegetables are prized, and Marrows are no exception to the
An early supply from the open ground is most readily insured by raising
strong plants in pots and putting them on rich warm beds as early as
season and district will permit. Late frosts must be guarded against by
some kind of protection, and slugs must be deterred from eating up the
When to Plant Vegetables - June
To some extent the
will now take care of themselves, and we may
consider the chief anxieties and activities of the growing season over.
notes, therefore, will be more brief. We do not counsel the cultivator
to 'rest and be thankful.' It is better for him to work, but he must be
thankful all the same, if he would be happy in his healthy and
Watering and weeding are
the principal labors
of this month, and both must be pursued with diligence. But ordinary
watering, where every drop has to be dipped and carried, is often
injurious rather than beneficial, for the simple reason that it is only
half done. In such cases it is advisable to withhold water as long as
possible, and then to give it in abundance, watering only a small plot
every day in order to saturate the ground, and taking a week or more to
go over a piece which would be done in a day by mere surface dribblings.
should be in full supply, and may be cut until the middle or
end of the month. When cutting should cease depends on the district. In
the South of England the 14th is about the proper time to make the last
cut; north of the Trent, the 20th may be soon enough; and further
cutting may be continued into July.
The point to be borne in
that the plant must be allowed time to grow freely without any further
check, in order to store up energy for making robust shoots
It is a good plan to insert stakes, such as are used for Peas, in
Asparagus beds, to give support to the green growth against gales of
wind; for when the stems are snapped by storms, as they often are, the
roots lose their aid, and are weakened for their future work.
When to Plant
both Dwarf and Runner, may be sown about the middle of the
month, to supply tender pods when those from the early sowings are
A late crop of Runners will pay well almost anywhere, for they bear
until the frost cuts them down, which may not happen until far into
When to Plant Broccoli.—-
Take advantage of showers to
continue planting out.
When to Plant
the end of the month sow a good breadth of small
Cabbages and Coleworts. They will be immensely valuable to plant out as
the summer crops are cleared away.
When to Plant Capsicums
may be planted out in a sunny
that are transferred now from seed-beds must have
plentiful supplies of water, and be shaded during midday for a week.
When the heads are visible it is customary to snap one of the inner
leaves over them for protection.
to be planted out without loss of time, in showery weather if
possible; but if the weather is hot and dry, shade the plants and give
water. The work must be well done, hence it is advisable to lift no
plants than can be quickly dealt with, for exposure tends to
and Celery ought never to suffer a check in even the slightest degree.
When planted, dust lightly with soot or wood-ashes. Pea-sticks laid
across the trenches will give shade enough with very little trouble.
wholesome esculent is used in a variety of ways, and is
very much prized in some households. The blanched heads make an
acceptable accompaniment to cheese, and are much appreciated for
salads; they may also be stewed and served with melted butter in the
same manner as Sea Kale. To grow large clean roots a deep rich soil is
If you are going to use
manure make sure that it is well rotted and
bury it at least twelve inches, because if you don't you will end up
with fanged roots.
Prepare the seed-bed as
for Parsnips, sow in drills
inches apart, and thin the plants to nine inches in the rows. In
the roots will be ready for lifting, and ready to be packed in a dark
place for blanching.
When to Plant
for Pickling may be sown on
. Endives are not all that popular when there are pleny of lettuce
around, but it
takes the place of lettuce in autumn and winter, when the
vegetables are scarce. Sow in shallow drills six inches apart. Thin the
plants, and transfer the plants to rich light soil. They must be
grown on well-manured soil, and water well if the weather is
Plant Lettuce. Lettuce should be sown as often as possible
when the seasons allow. A few rows of
large Cos lettuce should be sown in trenches prepared as for celery,
thinned and allowed to grow. They will form good hearts,
and are valued when lettuces are scarce.
a final crop in greenhouses sow as previously directed, and
grow the plants in pots. Try and encourage quick growth so
that they fruit before the end of September.
If you find that there
isn't a lot of sunshine when they should be ripening, them make sure
that the greenhouse is well ventilated, and that they are warm and dry
at night. Before they become heavy, make sure that they are well
supported if you are growing them vertically, and try and place them on
straw, away from the soil if not, to protect them from garden
may be prepared for now. The first step towards success is
to accumulate a long heap of horse-droppings with the least possible
amount of litter. Let this ferment moderately, and turn it two or three
times, always making a long heap of it, which keeps down the
When the fire is somewhat
taken out of it, make up the bed
with a mixture of about four parts of the fermented manure and one part
of turfy loam, well incorporated. Beat the stuff together with the flat
of the spade as the work proceeds, fashioning the bed in the form of a
ridge about three feet wide at the base, and of any length that may be
convenient. Give the work a neat finish, or the Mushrooms will
not repay you.
Put in rather large lumps
of spawn when the bed is nicely
warm, cover with a thin layer of fine soil, and protect with mats or
clean straw. This is a quick and easy way of When to Plant Vegetables -
Mushrooms, and by
commencing now the season is all before one. Nine times in ten, people
begin preparations for Mushroom When to Plant Vegetables - about a
month too late, for the
spawn runs during the hot weather, and the crop rises when the moderate
autumnal temperature sets in.
When to Plant
to be sown for salads. Forward beds of large sorts to be
thinned in good time. The best Onions for keeping are those of moderate
size, perfectly ripened; therefore the thinning should not be too
may still be sown, and as the season advances preference should
be given to quick-When to Plant Vegetables - early varieties.
When to Plant
may be sown in variety and in quantity after Midsummer Day.
Sow on well-prepared ground, and put a sprinkle of artificial manure in
the drills with the seed. By hastening the early growth of the plant
fly is kept in check.
When to Plant Vegetables - July
For gardeners July is in
one respect like January; everything depends on
the weather. It may be hot, with frequent heavy rains, and vegetation
the most luxuriant growth; or the earth may be iron and the heavens
brass, with scarcely a green blade to be seen. The light flying showers
that usually occur in July do not render watering unnecessary; in fact,
a heavy soaking of a crop after a moderate rainfall is a valuable aid
its growth, for it requires a long-continued heavy downpour to
to the roots.
Vegetables for Autumn and Winter use. As the month
advances early crops will be finished and numerous plots of ground
become vacant. In many gardens it is now the practice to sow in July
August seeds of quick-When to Plant Vegetables - varieties of
Vegetables and Salads to
furnish supplies through the autumn and early winter months, and this
system is strongly to be commended. These sowings not only increase the
cropping capacity of the garden but they extend the use of many
favorite Vegetables which from spring sowings customarily cease at the
end of summer.
Two things are essential
to success. Early-maturing
varieties only should be sown and the plants must be thinned
they appear (thus avoiding transplanting), so that they receive no
The following subjects are
especially suited for the
purpose: Dwarf French Beans (sow early in July), Beet, Cabbage, Carrot,
Cauliflower (sow early in July), Italian Corn Salad, Cress, Endive,
Rabi, Lettuce, Onion, Parsley, Peas, Radish, Spinach, and Turnip.
Potatoes may also be planted in July, but only tubers of early
saved from the preceding year should be used.
is awful if not
sorted. The stumps of Cabbages and Cauliflowers smell terribly, and you
don't want to upset the neighbors. The short and easy way with all
decaying rubbish is to put it at the bottom of a trench when preparing
land for planting. There it stops being a nuisance and becomes a
When to Plant
few Dwarf French Beans may still be sown to extend outdoor
crops to the latest possible date. For autumn and winter supplies
sowings of the Dwarf and Climbing classes may be made from mid-July to
mid-September, the dwarfs in cold frames and the climbers on narrow
borders in any house that can be spared for the purpose.
When to Plant
to be planted out as before; many of the plants left over
from former plantings will now be stout and strong, and make useful
sowing of Cabbage seed at this period of the year is not easy. When the
crop has passed the winter there is a danger
that the plants may bolt, instead of forming hearts. In the great
majority of such cases the loss is attributed to an unwise selection
of sorts. For sowing in spring there is quite a long list of varieties,
many of them possessing distinctive qualities which meet various
requirements. It is unwise now.
The Cabbages that can be
relied on to
finish well in spring are comparatively few in number. But repeated
experiments have demonstrated that loss and disappointment can be
avoided by sowing only those varieties which show no tendency to bolt.
Another, but minor, cause of Cabbages starting seed-stems is premature
The exact date for any
district must be determined by the
latitude and the aspect of the place. In the North sowing will, of
necessity, be earlier than in the Midlands or the South. Assuming,
however, that suitable varieties are chosen, the whole difficulty can
disposed of, even on soils where Cabbages show an unusual tendency to
send up seed-stems prematurely, by sowing in August instead of in
The seed-bed should be
nicely prepared, and any old plaster, or other
rubbish containing lime, should be dug in. Sow thinly, for a thick
sowing makes a weak plant, no matter how severely it may be thinned
When to Plant
should be thinned to one plant in each station, and that, of
course, the strongest.
culture of small sorts should commence, to produce a
succession of young Carrots for table.
When to Plant
to be planted out in showery weather. It is too late to sow
now, except for soups, and for that purpose only a small sowing should
be made, as it may not come to anything.
who care for Chards must cut down a number of Globe
Artichokes about six inches above ground, and, if
necessary, keep the
plants well watered to induce new growth, which will be ready for
blanching in September.
on ridges generally do well without water, but they must not
be allowed to suffer from drought. If watering must be resorted to,
sure first of soft water well warmed by exposure to the sun, and water
liberally three or four evenings in succession, and then give no more
for a week or so.
should be sown for winter. It will be well to make two sowings, say
on the first and last days of the month.
Shallots. They should be taken up in suitable weather, and
it may be
necessary to complete the ripening under shelter.
Plant Leeks. These need to
be planted out; and on dry soils, in trenches prepared as for
When to Plant
It should be sown for winter use. It is a most important matter, even
in the smallest garden, to have a constant supply.
quick-When to Plant Vegetables - early varieties should be sown now.
When to Plant
there is a good crop of an early variety it should be
lifted without waiting for the shaws to die down. The tender skins will
suffer damage if the work is done roughly, but will soon harden, and
stock will ripen in the store as perfectly as in the ground. It needs
some amount of courage to lift Potatoes while the tops are still green
and vigorous, and it should not be done until the roots are fully grown
and beginning to ripen. Quick sorts may be
planted to dig as
Potatoes later in the year.
When to Plant Radishes.—Sow
the large-When to Plant Vegetables - kinds for
When to Plant
the Prickly-seeded to stand the winter, selecting for
the seed-bed ground lying high and dry that has been at least twice dug
over and has had no recent manure. The twice digging is to promote the
destruction of the 'Spinach Moth' grub, which the robins and thrushes
will devour when exposed by digging. These grubs make an end of many a
good breadth of Winter Spinach every year, and are the more to be
by the careless grower.
When to Plant
to be sown in quantity in the early part of the month; thin
advancing crops, and keep the hoe in action amongst them.
Plant Winter Greens
of all kinds to be planted out freely in the best ground
at command, after a good digging, and to be aided with water for a week
or so should the weather be dry.
When to Plant Vegetables - August
The importance of
summer-sown Vegetables and Salads is dealt with under
July, and seeds of most of the vegetables written about may still be
as ground becomes vacant. The supplies of the garden during the next
winter and spring will greatly depend upon good management now,
and the utmost must be made of the few weeks of weather that
One great difficulty in
connection with sowing seed at this
period of the year is the likelihood of the ground being too dry; yet
is most unwise to water seeds, and it is always better if they can be
got up with the natural moisture of the soil alone. However, in an
extreme case the ground should be well soaked before the seed is sown,
and after sowing covered with hurdles, pea-sticks, or mats until the
seeds begin to sprout.
Artichokes - to be
cut down as soon
as the heads are used.
- to be planted out now. As the Sprouting Broccoli,
to the class of 'Winter Greens,' does not pay well in spring unless it
grows freely now, plant it far enough apart; if crowded where already
planted to stand the winter, take out every alternate plant and make
many small gardens the August sowing of Cabbages is made
to suffice for the whole year, and in the largest establishments
breadths are sown now than at any other period.
But whether the garden
be small or large, it is not wise to rely exclusively on the sowing of
any one kind. At least two varieties should be chosen, and as a
precaution each variety may be sown at two dates, with an interval of
about a fortnight between. The wisdom of this arrangement will be
evident in nine seasons out of ten. It allows for contingencies,
prolongs the season of supply, and offers two distinct dishes of a
single vegetable—the mature hearts, and the partially developed plants,
which differ, when served, both in appearance and in flavor. Where the
demand is extensive, or great diversity is required, three or four
should be sown, including Red Cabbage to produce fine heads for
blanching if the plants
sown now will produce finer heads in spring and
early summer than are generally obtained from a January or February
sowing. The time to sow must be determined by the climate of
district. In cold, late localities, the first week is none too early;
from the 15th to the 25th is a good time for all the Midland districts;
and the end of the month, or the first week of September, is early
enough in the South. In places like Devon and Cornwall the sowing is
But whatever date may suit the district, the seed should be sown with
care, in order that a healthy growth may be promoted from the first.
Winter the plants in frames or by other convenient means, but it is
important to keep them hardy by giving air at every favorable
to be carefully earthed up as required. It takes five weeks or
more to blanch Celery well, and as the earthing up checks growth, the
operation should not be commenced a day too soon. Take care that the
earth does not get into the hearts.
When to Plant Corn
Salad should be sown during this month
and September to produce
plants fit for use in early spring. In the summer months the whole
is edible, but in winter or spring the outer leaves only should be used.
a supply of Cucumbers during the winter months the
general principles of management are identical with those given under
January and March, with one important exception. At the commencement of
the year a continued increase of light and warmth may be relied
there will be a constant diminution of these vital forces. Hence the
progress of the plants will gradually abate as the year wanes, and due
allowance must be made for the fact. So much depends on the character
the autumn and winter that it will be unwise to risk all on a single
sowing. Seed put in on two or three occasions between the end of August
and the end of October will provide plants in various stages of growth
to meet the exigencies of the season.
The production of
then depend on care and management. In very dull cold weather it may be
dangerous to syringe the foliage, but the necessary moisture can be
secured by sprinkling the floor and walls.
When to Plant Endives.—Make
a final sowing, and plant out all that are large enough,
selecting, if possible, a dry, sloping bank for the purpose.
Plant Lettuce. These
should be sown to stand the winter, choosing the hardiest
varieties. In cold districts the middle of the month is a good time to
sow; in favored places the end of the month is preferable.
Plant Onions. Hardy types of
onions can be sown now. Two sowings—one at the beginning, the
the end of the month—should be done for best results.
The storage of
Onions is not often done well, resulting in losses through mildew
premature growth. If any are as yet unripe, spread them out in the sun
in a dry place, where they can be covered quickly in case of rain. In
wet, cold seasons, it is sometimes necessary to finish the store Onions
by putting them in a nearly cold oven for some hours before they are
coming forward for late bearing should have attention,
more especially to make them safe against storms by a sufficiency of
support, and in case of drought to give abundance of water.
Plants. These may be put in should the
weather prove favorable;
but next month will be better. In hot weather it is well worth while
bed the plants closely in a moist shady place until rain comes, and
should be gathered as soon as ripe. If bad weather interferes
with the finishing of the crop, cut the full-grown fruit with a length
of stem attached, and hang them up in a sunny greenhouse, or some other
warm spot in full daylight. Seed sown now or in September will produce
plants that should afford fine fruit in March, and it will need care
judgment to carry them safely through the winter.
When to Plant Turnips.
These may be sown in the early part of the
month. The best sorts now
are White Gem, or Snowball. All the Year Round will please those who
like a yellow Turnip.
When to Plant Vegetables - September
Weeds will be troublesome
to the overworked and the idle gardener, while
the best-kept land will be full of seeds blown upon it from the
sluggard's garden, and the first shower will bring them up in terrific
All that we have to say
about the weeds is that they must be kept
down, as they not only choke the rising crops in seed-beds and spoil
the look of everything, but they very much tend to keep the ground damp
and cold, when, if they were away, it would get dry and
warm, to the
benefit of all the proper crops upon it. Neglect will make the task of
eradication simply terrible, and, in the meantime, every crop on the
ground will suffer.
The two great months for
weeds in the northern hemisphere are May and
September; but often the September weeds triumph, because the mischief
they do is not then so obvious to the casual eye. As there are now many
used-up crops that may be cleared away from your vegetable gardens,
large quantities of Cabbage,
Endive, Lettuce, and even thinnings of Spinach may be planted out to
stand the winter.
advocate crowding the land now with Cabbage plants, for
growth will be slow and the demands of the kitchen constant. Crowding,
however, is not quite the same thing as overcrowding, and it is only a
waste of labor, land and crop to put the plants so close together that
they have not space for full development. The usual rule in planting
the larger sorts of Cabbage at this time of the year is to allow a
distance every way of two feet between the plants. The crowding
principle may be carried so far as to put miniature Cabbages between
them, but only on the clear understanding that the small stuff is all
be cleared off before spring growth commences, and the large Cabbages
will then have proper space for development.
When to Plant Cauliflower.—Sow
again in a frame or in a
pan in the greenhouse.
earth up, selecting a
dry time for the task.
quite six weeks to blanch by
means of straw, covered with
for the winter need careful
management and suitable
appliances. See the remarks on this subject under August.
to be planted out as directed last month. Plant a few on the
border of an orchard-house, or in a ground vinery, or in old frames for
which some lights, however crazy, can be found.
should be coming in from the garden now in good condition,
but the supply will necessarily be running short. Sowings of two or
three sorts should be made partly in frames and partly on a dry open
plot from which a crop has been taken. The ground should be well dug
not manured. Sow thinly, so that there will not be much need for
thinning, and confine the selection to sorts known to be hardy. The
August sowings will soon be forward enough for putting out, and it will
be advisable to get the work done as early as possible, to insure the
plants being well established before winter.
latest sowing will require thinning, but for the present
this must not be too strictly carried out; between this
there will be many opportunities. Thin the plot by drawing out complete
plants as Parsley is demanded for the kitchen. If no late sowing was
made, or, having been made, has failed, cut down to the ground the
strongest plants, that a new growth may be secured quickly. A few
potted at the end of the month, or lifted and placed in frames, may
prove exceedingly valuable in winter.
that are ready should be taken up with reasonable care. It is
not wise to wait for the dying down of the shaws, because, when the
tubers are fully grown, they ripen as well in the store, out of harm's
way, as in the ground, where they are exposed to influences that are
favorable seasons and forward localities Winter Spinach
sown in the first half of this month will make a good plant before
winter. Thin the plants that are already up to six inches apart.
When to Plant Vegetables - October
Vegetable gardening in
October is when weeds and falling leaves
are a curse as they affect the crops. They encourage
damp and dirt by preventing a free
circulation of air amongst the crops, and getting sunshine to the
land. Keep all clean and tidy, even to the removal of the lower leaves
of Cabbages, when you find them decaying on the plants and lying on the
The heavy rains of this
month interfere with
outdoor work, and are often a great nuisance. The accumulation of
rubbish anywhere, even if out
of sight, should be dealt with.
Make your compost bins,
and gather the fallen leaves and make leaf mold.
If you are looking for
work, use the hoe gently between the crops, taking care not
to break or
bruise healthy leaves, or to disturb the roots of any plant. Dig vacant
plots, and lay the land up in ridges in the roughest manner
Heavy land may be manured now with advantage, but it is not desirable
manure light land until spring.
to be planted out as advised last
must be continued.
the roots and store in sand.
to be prepared for the winter.
of the crop should be lifted
and stored in sand; the
plants left in the ground to be protected by earthing over.
They must be earthed up, and protecting
material got ready to assure
its safety during frost.
about a dozen plants at a time as required, cut or
wrench off the foliage, and pack the roots, crown upwards, in boxes
moist leaf-mold or soil. They must be stored in absolute darkness in
some cellar or Mushroom-house which is safe from frost, but a forcing
temperature is detrimental to the flavor. Gathering may commence about
three weeks after storing. The yield is abundant, and is of especial
value for salads through the autumn and winter months.
The must be blanched for use as it
acquires full size, but not
before, as the blanching makes an end of growth.
When to Plant Lettuces.—Continue
to plant as before
advised, and make a final sowing
in frames not later than the middle of the month.
may be dug all the winter as wanted. Although a slight frost
will not injure them when left in the ground, protection by rough
is needful in very severe weather. It often happens that they grow
freely soon after the turn of the year, and then become worthless.
These should be taken up and stored with all
for forcing should be taken up and laid aside in a dry, cool
place, exposed to the weather. This gives the roots a check, and
constitutes a kind of winter, which in some degree prepares them for
such as Beet, Salsify, and Turnip,
to be taken up as soon as
possible, and stored for the winter.
Winter Greens. These
may still be transplanted, and it is often better to use
up the remainder of the seed-beds than to let the plants stand. In the
event of a severe winter, these late-planted Greens may not be of much
value; but in a mild winter they will make
some progress, and
may prove very useful in the spring.
When to Plant Vegetables - November
The remarks about making
compost last month also applies to this month. The leaves are
falling, the atmosphere is moist, and there
should be the utmost care taken not to make things worse by scatterings
of vegetable rubbish.
Now we are in the 'dull
days before Christmas' and time to review the garden. Think of things
that were a roaring success and of course those that bombed horribly
and plan accordingly. Order seeds, roots, plants, &c., for next
experience and observation can be recorded with a view to future
Consistently with the
revision of plans by the fireside, revise
the work out of doors. Begin to prepare for next year's crops by
trenching, manuring, planting, and collecting stuff to burn in a
'smother.' Land dug now for spring seeds and roots, and kept quite
rough, will only require to be leveled down and raked over when spring
comes to be ready for seed, and will produce better crops than if
prepared in a hurry.
Protecting material for
all the needs of the season
must be done, in view of the fact that a few nights of hard
frost may destroy Lettuces, Endives, Celery, and Cauliflowers worth
pounds, which a few shillings'-worth of labor and mulch would have
Earthwork can generally be
pushed on, and it is good practice to
get all road-mending and the breaking up of new ground completed before
the year runs out, because of the hindrance that may result from frost,
and the inevitable pressure of other work at the turn of the spring.
weather is an important matter; but often the month of November is
favorable to outdoor work, and labor can then be found more readily
than at most other seasons.
must be protected ere frost attacks them. Cut off
the stems and large leaves to within a foot of the ground; then heap up
along each side of the rows a lot of dry mulch consisting of straw,
haulm, or leaves, taking care in so doing to leave free access to light
and air. The hearts must not be covered, or decay will follow.
They may be dug as needed, but some should be
and stored in sand for use during frosts.
beds not yet cleaned must have prompt attention. Cut down
the brown grass and rake off all the weeds and rubbish, and finish by
putting on a dressing of seaweed, or half-rotten stable manure.
is customary on dry warm soils to sow Beans at the
end of October or during November for a first crop, and the practice is
worthwhile. On cold damp soils, and on clay lands everywhere, it
a waste of seed and labor to sow now, but every district has its
peculiar capabilities, and each cultivator must judge for himself. In
any case, Beans sown during this month should be put on well-drained
land in a sheltered spot.
Broccoli.—In areas where you experience bad
weather during this time, lay the
plants with their heads
facing the north.
When to Sew Carrots.
Carrots can be sown in frames,
sowings made every three
or four weeks until February.
will be turning in, and possibly those coming forward
will be all the better off for being covered with a leaf to protect the
heads from frost. If the barometer rises steadily and the wind goes
round to north or north-east, draw all the best Cauliflowers, and put
them in a shed or any out-of-the-way place safe for use.
frost coming after heavy rain may prove destructive to
Celery; and it is well, if there is a crop worth saving, to cut a
round the plantation to favor escape of surplus water. If taken up and
packed away in a dry shed, the sticks will keep fresh for some time.
It needs to be taken up and stored
ready for use, and new
plantations made as weather permits and ground can be spared.
When to Sew Peas.—The
sowing of Peas outdoors now is not recommended for all, but only for
those who have a good climate and guaranteed success. If you
determined to sow, select for
the purpose a dry, light, well-drained sunny border, and make it safe
from mice, slugs, and sparrows. The quick round-seeded
must be chosen for the purpose, and it will be advisable to sow two or
three sorts rather than one only. Peas to be grown entirely under glass
may be started now.
to be lifted for forcing. This delicious vegetable may,
indeed, be forced for the table in this month; but it is not advisable
to be in a hurry, for a fine sample cannot be secured so early. Sea
Kale is the easiest thing in the world to force; the only point of
importance is to have strong roots to begin with. Any place such as
Mushroom-houses, cellars, pits, or old sheds, where it is possible to
maintain a temperature of 45° to 55°, may be used for the purpose.
Put the plants thickly into pots or boxes, or plant them in a bed, and
it is essential to exclude light to insure blanching. By these simple
means a regular supply may be obtained until the permanent beds in the
open ground come into use.
When to Plant Vegetables - December
The best advice that can
be given for this month is to be prepared for
either heavy rain or sharp frost, so that extreme variations of
temperature may inflict the least possible injury in the garden. Let
work be done in accordance with the weather, and don't plant on boggy
ground or when the frost is still around.
opportunity of wheeling out manure; and as long as the ground can be
without waste of labor, proceed to open trenches, make drains, and
walks, because this is the period for improving, and the place must be
very perfect which affords no work for winter weather.
Make ready pea-sticks,
stakes of sizes, and at odd times gather up all the dry stuff that is
adapted for a grand 'smother.' A careful forecasting of the next year's
cropping will show that even now many arrangements may be made to
increase the chances of success.
to be prepared for early work by digging and manuring. All
the refuse turf and leaf-mold from the potting-shed and the soil
knocked out of pots may be usefully disposed of by adding it to this
border, which cannot be too light or too rich, and a good dressing of
manure will give it strength to perform well.
They need to be earthed up for
protection and support.
to be earthed up for the last time. In case of severe weather,
have protecting material at hand in the shape of dry mulch or mats.
Pea-sticks make an excellent foundation on which to throw mulch,
mats, etc., for quickly covering Celery, the protection is
easily removed when the frost is over, and costs next to nothing.
will be valued now, and must be blanched as required. Place a
few in frames and other protected spots. In the unused corners of sheds
and outhouses they may be safer than out of doors.
all cold districts it is wise to secure a bed of Parsley,
in a frame or pit, or if a few plants were potted in September, they
be wintered in any place where they can have light and air freely. It
so important to have Parsley at command as wanted, that it may be worth
while to put a frame over a few rows as they stand in the open quarter,
rather than risk the loss of all in the event of severe weather.
When to Plant Radishes.—Sow
one of the long sorts for a
first supply in some warm
spot, to secure quick growth.
Onions can be planted in rows
one foot apart. They should
not be earthed up, for the young bulbs form round the stems in full
Have you ever thought, "How many vegetables do I need to
plant for my family?"
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